"As an industry we must do better," ICMM CEO Rohitesh Dhawan said.
"Forty-four people lost their lives whilst at work in 2020, which is a stark reminder of the relentless efforts required to eliminate fatalities and achieve our goal of zero harm."
The toll compared with 287 fatalities recorded by members in 2019, with 250 attributed to Vale's tailings dam collapse at Brumadinho in Brazil, and 50 fatalities in 2018.
Twelve of ICMM's 27 member miners reported zero fatalities in 2020: Antofagasta Minerals, BHP, Hydro, JX Nippon, Minera San Cristobal, Minsur, MMG, Newcrest, Newmont, Rio Tinto, Sumitomo Metal Mining and Teck Resources.
Data for new member Boliden would be included from 2021, ICMM said.
Of the 2020 total, half or 22 fatalities occurred at members' operations in South Africa, with many resulting from fall-of-ground incidents due to the prevalence of deep, high-stress mines in the country.
South Africa had recorded a total of 60 mine fatalities in 2020, mines minister Gwede Mantashe confirmed in May.
ICMM said South Africa's mining industry had "made significant progress" in reducing fall-of-ground fatalities, from 324 in 1990 to 21 in 2020.
"However, it remains a key area of focus for collaboration," the report said.
It noted the Minerals Council South Africa had introduced four key interventions to reduce these incidents and had established the CEO Zero Harm Forum to accelerate towards the aim.
ICMM began collating and publishing company members' safety data in 2012 to encourage information sharing and learning.