Attempts at expropriating outer space and aggressive plans to actually seize territories of other planets hardly set the countries to fruitful cooperation, Roscosmos deputy general director for international cooperation Sergey Saveliev said in a translated statement.
"There have already been examples in history when one country decided to start seizing territories in its interests - everyone remembers what came of it," he said.
US president Donald Trump signed the order encouraging international support for the recovery and use of space resources on April 6.
It noted the US had not signed the Moon Agreement and would object to any attempt by any other state or international organisation to treat the Moon Agreement as reflecting or otherwise expressing customary international law.
"Americans should have the right to engage in commercial exploration, recovery, and use of resources in outer space, consistent with applicable law," the order said.
"Outer space is a legally and physically unique domain of human activity, and the United States does not view it as a global commons.
"Accordingly, it shall be the policy of the United States to encourage international support for the public and private recovery and use of resources in outer space, consistent with applicable law."
Russia had last year indicated it wanted to join Luxembourg as a leader in the early stages of asteroid prospecting.