Policia Federal said they were charged with several environmental crimes and a fourth crime of submitting a false declaration before the National Mining Agency (ANM).
PF said the 19 people, who worked for Vale and Tüv Süd, were also indicted for the deaths of 270 people.
Vale and Tüv Süd told Bloomberg last week they couldn't comment yet as they were waiting for formal notification or to assess the police report.
The indictment comes as Vale is set to host an investor day in New York later today.
The Brazil-based miner had agreed to pay US$7 billion in February in a settlement with the state of Minas Gerais over the Brumadinho disaster.
Separately, the Public Prosecutors of Minas Gerais (MPMG) said on Friday it had appealed the decision by the Superior Court of Justice to transfer the criminal action, against Vale's former boss and 15 others for homicide over the dam collapse, from the state to the federal court.